Laser processing technology is a processing technology that uses the interaction between laser beam and material to cut, weld, surface treat, punch and micro process materials (including metal and nonmetal). As an advanced manufacturing technology, laser processing has been widely used in automobile, electronics, electrical appliances, aviation, metallurgy, machinery manufacturing and other important sectors of the national economy. It plays an increasingly important role in improving product quality, labor productivity, automation, pollution-free and reducing material consumption.
Laser technology is a comprehensive technology involving many disciplines such as optics, mechanics, electricity, materials and detection. Traditionally, its research scope can be divided into the following nine aspects:
1. Laser processing system. It includes laser, light guide system, machine tool, control system and detection system;
2. Laser processing technology. Including welding, surface treatment, drilling, marking, fine tuning and other processing technologies;
3. Laser welding: automobile body thick sheet, automobile parts, lithium battery, cardiac pacemaker, sealed relay and other sealing devices, as well as various devices that are not allowed to be polluted and deformed by welding. The lasers used include YAG laser, CO2 laser and semiconductor pump laser;
4. Laser cutting: automobile industry, computer, electrical cabinet, wood knife mold industry, cutting of various metal parts and special materials, circular saw blade, acrylic, spring gasket, copper plate for electronic parts below 2mm, some metal mesh plate, steel pipe, tinned iron plate, lead plated steel plate, phosphor bronze, electric board, thin aluminum alloy, quartz glass, silicone rubber, alumina ceramics less than 1 mm Porcelain, titanium alloy used in aerospace industry, etc. YAG laser and CO2 laser are used;
5. Laser marking: it is widely used in various materials and almost all industries. The lasers used include YAG laser, CO2 laser and semiconductor pump laser;
6. Laser drilling: laser drilling is mainly used in aerospace, automobile manufacturing, electronic instrument, chemical industry and other industries. With the rapid development of laser drilling, the average output power of YAG laser for bulk drilling has increased from 400W to 800w-1000w. The more mature application of laser drilling in China is in the production of artificial diamond and natural diamond drawing die, gem bearing of watch and instrument, aircraft blade, multilayer printed circuit board and other industries. Most of the lasers used are YAG laser, CO2 laser, some excimer laser, isotope laser and semiconductor pump laser;
7. Laser heat treatment: it is widely used in automobile industry, such as heat treatment of cylinder liner, crankshaft, piston ring, commutator, gear and other parts, and also widely used in aerospace, machine tool industry and other mechanical industries. The application of laser heat treatment in China is much more extensive than that in foreign countries. Most of the lasers used are YAG laser and CO2 laser;
8. Laser Rapid Prototyping: it combines laser processing technology with computer numerical control technology and flexible manufacturing technology, which is mostly used in mold and model industry. Most of the lasers used are YAG laser and CO2 laser;
9. Laser coating: widely used in aerospace, mold and mechanical and electrical industry. Most of the lasers used are high-power YAG laser and CO2 laser.
Laser processing provides a clean and pollution-free environment and production process for industrial manufacturing, which is also the biggest advantage of laser processing at present.
Compared with traditional processing technology, laser processing technology has many advantages, so it has been widely used. It is especially suitable for the development of new products: once the product drawings are formed, laser processing can be carried out immediately, and the physical objects of new products can be obtained in the shortest time.
1. The light spot is small, the energy is concentrated and the heat affected zone is small.
2. No contact with the workpiece, no pollution to the workpiece.
3. Compared with electron beam machining, it is more convenient to use.
4. The laser beam is easy to focus and guide, and easy to control automatically.
5. Wide range: it can carve and cut almost any material.
6. Safe and reliable: adopt non-contact processing, will not cause mechanical extrusion or mechanical stress to the material.
7. Precise and meticulous: the machining accuracy can reach 0.1 mm.
8. The effect is consistent: the processing effect of the same batch is almost the same.
9. High speed and fast: can immediately according to the computer output of high-speed engraving and cutting, and the speed of laser cutting is much faster than that of wire cutting.
10. Low cost: not limited by the number of processing, for small batch processing services, laser processing is cheaper.
11. Small cutting seam: the cutting seam of laser cutting is generally 0.1-0.2mm.
12. Smooth cutting surface: there is no burr on the cutting surface of laser cutting.
13. Small thermal deformation: the laser cutting seam of laser processing is thin, fast, and energy concentration, so the heat transferred to the material to be cut is small, and the deformation of the material is also very small.
14. Suitable for the processing of large products: the mold manufacturing cost of large products is very high, laser processing does not need any mold manufacturing, and laser processing completely avoids the collapse edge formed by punching and shearing of materials, which can greatly reduce the production cost of enterprises and improve the grade of products.
15. Material saving: laser processing adopts computer programming, which can cut the materials of different shapes of products, maximize the utilization rate of materials and greatly reduce the material cost of enterprises.
Different laser technologies lead to different lasers, such as CO2 laser, solid-state laser, fiber laser and excimer laser, etc., which play an important role in industrial processing and manufacturing